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March 2020

Stories from my Crazy Wine Trip to Chile









Stories from my Crazy Wine Trip to Chile




Wine Making in Southern Chile is Insane






































2 weeks ago I was pressing grapes in southern Chile
















































And I was doing it by hand over a bamboo mat!





















Earlier this month I went to rural southern Chile to seek out a metaphorical legendary lost city of wine making. It was crazy on it's own, but now in the perspective of the pandemic and shut down of normal life it seems even more surreal! In a normal world I would have come back and hosted all kinds of events to share what I experienced, but instead I came back into managing health risks, advocating for a small business bail out, and doing financial damage control.

But wine is special. At it's best, a bottle of wine is a little fragment, a preserved piece of culture, history, and the environment from somewhere else in the world that can be transported and enjoyed by many different people. The wine makers, the wines, and what they're trying to build in their communities really moved me and I'm anxious to share these stories, so I'm trying something different:























A Virtual Wine Tasting with Maine and Loire

Maine and Loire has brought in 5 wines from the people I visited and they're available for order all this week. Maine and Loire and I will send out more detailed info about the wine makers, links to videos I made while I was there, and even a link to a free online pandora music station so that you can listen to the local music I listened to while I was there. On Friday at 5 I'll open some of them (not all 5, I drank plenty in Chile) and taste and talk about the wines live on Zoom. Any of you who have bought a bottle is invited to open it at the same time and join in. I may not be able to see you in person, but through the magic of wine we can all share an experience from different locations. Thanks Dionysus!
 

Give Maine and Loire a call at 207-805-1336 to order any of the wines

























That's a 200 year old Pais vine





















My interest in Chile really started with Roberto Henriquez. I met him in 2018 and his intensity and openness got my attention; also his wines were gorgeous. I started hearing more rumors about super old vines and a unique wine culture inherited from Spanish conquistadors but maintained for 300+ years by indigenous people. I started looking for more and eventually picked up the Brazos portfolio. As I tasted more and heard more stories I decided that I absolutely had to go to southern Chile and see for myself. I'm writing this now just after spending 6 days in BioBio, Itata, and the Maule valleys of Chile. I visited Roberto Henriquez, Jose Luiz at Gonzales Bastias, Mauricio Gonzalez at Estacion Yumbel, and Manel Moraga at Cacique Maravilla. It was amazing, powerful, and memorable for the rest of my life.    
BioBio, Itata, and Maule are all south of the more famous Chilean wine regions. Maule is about 3 hours south of Santiago and then BioBio and Itata are about another 3 hours south. The Bio Bio river is where the Spanish conquest died. There was a powerful native tribe here, the Mapuche, who fought the Spaniards to a draw and eventually the two cultures coexisted and then blended. So the people here have a different outlook compared to Santiago up north. Santiago is almost more like going to Europe, but once you get down into Maule it's almost like you've stepped back in time. Most of the red vines are Pais but there's also Cinsault. For whites it seems like it's Moscatel de Alexandria, Corrinto, and Semillon. There are a lot of vineyards and Pais is a very vigorous productive vine, but many are abandoned. We saw abandoned vines all over the place that were growing aggressively up trees and thriving. This is so special because the wine making traditions are descended un-altered from Spanish colonists 300-400 years ago and the vines are all ungrafted. 
 
Most people that own and maintain their vines seem to mostly sell the grapes at terribly low prices to big companies and or make small amounts of wine for their own consumption. The paper industry occupies a majority of the land in the area and is also a majority of the economy. Many people have ripped up their 200 year old vines to plant trees for the paper industry since pine trees take no maintenance. But it's a very extractive industry in BioBio and Itata with pines planted in monoculture and then clear cut. Most people in the area are farmers but it's very small scale subsistence farming.
 
Before I went I had a theory that most of the Chilean population lives up closer to Santiago and saw southern Chile as backwards superstition Indians. I had no idea though and I was hoping the situation might be more complicated than that. But over all that's how the situation was. Everyone we spoke to who worked up in Santiago said that no one up there would think if drinking a Pais. When we were in the Santiago airport we looked in all the wine shops and all the restaurants but we couldn't find a single wine made from Pais or that came from down south!
 
I think that will change though. This is a wine making culture that's unique in the world. I feel like the culture of Pipeno and these ancient vines should somehow be a Unesco World Heritage site. All of the wine makers we visited produced great wines that are vivid expressions of the land that they came from. The wine makers all had subtle variations in their motivations, but passion for the land and pride in their unique ancient traditions was in all their hearts.
























Roberto Henriquez

Roberto is such a nice guy and he's trying to build something bigger than himself that will help other local people make wine. His wines are very thoughtful, elegant, clean and alive. We spent 3 days with him picking grapes, helping crush, moving stuff around and walking all the vineyards. He's a modest and understated guy, but you can sense his intensity: the intensity of his vision for establishing a wine making industry here and helping to empower the local community. He's only been making wine commercially on his own for going on 5 years but he's leading the charge to bring these wines out to the rest of the world and to empower other local people to make and bottle wines as well.

Wines:
Roberto Henriquez Santa Cruz de Coya $26
Santa Cruz de Coya is all Pais from about 3 vineyard sites in Bio Bio. All are on granitic soil; so bits of decayed granite, clay, some quartz. It's susceptible to erosion, poor in nutrients, hard when dry and super sticky when wet, but it rarely rains. All of these vineyards were previously abandoned and Roberto has been working for 5 years to recover them and retrain the vines. That means lots and lots of manual labor prunig, plowing natural organic fertilizer into the soil, and doing some plowing with a horse to work it. It ferments in open fermenters and then ages in concrete. The vines are 200 years old. This was the most elegant poised and beautiful wine I tried in Chile. It's friendly and reminds me a bit of cru Beaujolais. It's a little floral and has a hint of the black pepper that is a hallmark of Pais but it's so smooth.  

Roberto Henriquez Rivera Del Notro Tinto $29
Notro Tinto is also from Bio Bio, but it's an old vineyard planted on a hill side that used to be a bank of the Bio Bio river. It's a super unusual mix of alluvial river deposits and volcanic matter from a long extinct volcano. The top soil of the vineyard is this exceptionally fine black volcanic sand. Again it's nutrient poor and the vines have to send roots down 30-40 feet. But that makes them much more drought resistant. This is made in pretty much exactly the same manner as the Coya, but it has a more mineral back bone. It's more structured and firm. It's pretty and very integrated and beautiful, but the structure is more robust and can stand up to more food. 
 














In Depth Blog Post About Roberto

































Gonzalez Bastias

Jose Luis Gonzalez Bastias was passionate, grounded, welcoming, and had a huge personality. He was totally in love with his family vineyard and to full of joy that he got to wake up there every day. He's the seventh generation of his family to make wine on this land. 

Wines:
Gonzalez Bastias Naranjo (orange wine) $29
40% Pinl Moscatel, 40% Torontel, 20% Pais. All hand harvested and co-fermented all together for 60 days on the skins in open top vats. Then it spends a further 6 months aging in old Rauli wood tanks. This is the most lovely fruit forward, rich, and approachable orange wine I've ever tasted. I don't say that lightly.

Gonzalez Bastias Matorral Pais $23
100% Pais, hand harvested and destemmed/macerated with a zaranda. The wine ferments in open top cement and wood fermenters before being transferred to cement tanks for a year. It's a more broad and substantial Pais. This is really balanced and a delicious rich and meatier version of Pais. It has more force and more body than Roberto's somewhat more elegant expression. This reminds more of some of my favorite central Italian reds. It just seems like Jose Luis' big out going personality expressing itself. 
 














Gonzalez Bastias blog post and Video



















That's all of Jose Luis's vineyards right there, with the Maule river beyond. If you zoom in you can even see him walking down the driveway!



















Cacique Maravilla

Manuel Moraga was also a passionate larger than life character. His family had owned his vineyards since 1776 and he had taken over in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquakes that totally destroyed their winery. His life has been 10 years of methodical rebuilding out of love for the land and vines.

Cacique Maravilla Gutiflower Sparkling wine $21
This is a lovely fun delicious thirst quenching clean pet nat. Manuel Moraga is a party animal. Wines like this: fun delicious and that you can drink lots of, are what he does best. the fruit is juicy and sunny but there's a super cool underlying structure from the aging on the yeast.














Harvest Video





















Here's a video I made of me harvesting grapes from tiny old bush vines with Roberto.



















Also I went skinny dipping in the Bio Bio river. Here I am emerging like Venus.



















The sunset behind Manuel's house. I think he just stares at this and goes to sleep every evening.  


















So that's it. That's what I've been up to. I hope you're all well and feeling ok. This is a difficult time for everyone. Take care and be good to yourself and the others around you.

Ned








































































































































































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How Hard is Wine Making in Chile?

Saturday afternoon I went with part of Roberto's crew over to Santa Juana to harvest some plums and to move water in the vineyard.  I had no idea what that meant but I jumped at the chance to spend some time getting to know the group of young guys working for Roberto.

Santa juana

It was about a 45 minute drive and we listened to the most eclectic mix of Pablo Neruda set ro rock music, Chilean folk music, reggaeton, and Cumbia. It was not and the drive made us all drowsy so first thing when we got there was to mix some instant coffee.  Then I went and harvested plums with a couple of the guys and the others went to check out the water situation.   
 
Santa Juana is where Roberto had made every vintage up until 2020 (4 vintages total).   It's beautiful peaceful little hidden valley with something like 3 ha of 200 hear old Pais vines but also lemon, apple, peach, plum, and fig trees.  There's a tiny ancient barn and half cellar where all the wine had been made.  
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Picking plums
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Roberto's bee hives
 
It was a hot summer afternoon but there was so much life: hawks cruising lazily over, bees, all kinds of fruits and vegetables growing everywhere, and a couple of Roberto's dogs hanging around.  After we had wandered about and picked all the plums we could reach (only one and a half trays) I decided to go see what the other guys were up to.  I good just see the edge of their truck way down in the bushes at the edge of the vineyard.  
20200307_163724Here's a picture of the vineyard.  The dam was way up on the back side of that hill on the far left.  
 
I walked down and they were lying in the shade with a hose stuck into a giant plastic tank in the truck bed.  We took a look and there was hardly any water. The hose had been run from some kind of water source, not a well they said, and they decided that we should go investigate.  Investigating turned out to be a 15 minute hike.
 
We climbed through two barbed wire fences, crossed two brooks on exceptionally sketchy plank bridges (the railing of one literally fell over when I looked at it), we hiked through the woods and then up every steep hill.  Finally we came to a tiny damn they had built across the creek with a pipe coming out of the bottom.  The idea was to build up a little natural reservoir they could tap by opening the valve on the far end of the hose way down hill.  Unfortunately there was pretty much no water in the dam.  
 
So we hiked all the way back down.  It was decided we should drink a bottle of wine and ait in the shade while we waited for the tank to fill up a tiny bit more.  I decided to run hill repeats.  Finally we drove the truck up above the house and transfers the water into another plastic tank using a pump. This tank was plumbed to the winery for cleaning and watering the garden.  

 
So 4 people spent an entire afternoon to get maybe 40 lbs of plums and 100 L of water.  It was so much work for so little.  I'll never take having water available in a winery for granted again, but it was a brilliant experience that demonstrated the difficulty of making wine in rural Chile but also the big hearted collaborative friendly spirit of the people.  The guys were so happy and friendly and were really enjoying them selves the whole time!

Gonzalez Bastias wines in Maule Chile

Monday we made the three hour drive up from Bio Bio to visit Gonzalez Bastias in the Maule valley.  We took our time and had some street food in the working city of Talca.  We ran into intense street demonstration between young women protesting for equal rights and saw them get confronted by riot police.  Chile is in an intersting situation right now.  They're still moving on from the rule of Augusto Pinochet (a brutal military dictator who ruled until 1990) and are about to vote on a new constitution.  The country has modernized quickly but it's happened at different speeds in different parts of the country.  There's intense inequality and a strong social movement has started to address that.  Overall it was a hot, intense, edgy day everywhere we went. 

Screenshot (13)

I decided to hop out and try to run the final 18K to the Gonzalez Bastias winery.  Let me tell you: that road is all hills!  It was about 90 degrees and there wasn't a cloud in the sky.  I made it 10K but the heat, steep hills, and the recent lunch I'd eaten all took a toll and I didn't run the final 8K.  

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Bastias signThe landscape was beautiful, intense, and harsh.  Most of it was just totally empty and the dirt road was so rough we were worried our Citroen wouldn't even make it.  And then we dropped down out of the hills and drove through a beautiful gate made of thinly split logs.  we drove into this green oasis of verdant ancient Pais vines that looked like small trees and grew up to head height!  We walked into the covered but open air winery and were greeted by this towering guy in a suitably big straw hat who immediately poured us glasses of still fermenting grape juice and then got us cans of beer.  This was Jose Luiz.   He welcomed us and launched right in to talking about the wines he had fermenting, the empanadas we were going to have for dinner, and how much he loved this land! 

Bastias

 

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We walked into the vineyard with him and he took great pride in lifting up the dense leaf cover and showing us the massive trunks of the 200 year old vines and all the huge grape clusters that Pais is so good at producing.  He said he plowed the vineyards with his horses mid season and then used hoes to keep some of the other plants from growing in too much, but that he didn't spray anything at all because the Pais is so vigorous and that wine should be made in the vineyard.  He said that when he does prune he just leaves the cuttings where they fall to decompose.  

Jose L with vine

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Jose Luiz said that the land owned him, not the other way around.  The idea of man owning land is crazy to him.  He had been born there, he said he would die there, and these 200 year old vines would keep producing amazing grapes.  The vines would not cry for him!  Matt said maybe the land would shed a little tear?  Jose Luiz said no, he had raised his kids well to continue maintaining this farm so that the land wouldn't miss him or cry at all.

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We sat around outside eating amazing pork terrine for dinner that he had made himself.  Although his heart was very much in his little farm he was very well traveled.  He said years ago he had tried a bottle of Italian wine that had blown his mind and so he had decided to travel to learn more about wine other places.  I assume that was part of why he started exporting his wines 7 years ago.  He had traveled extensively in Italy and we talked about our shared love of Sicily.  He had also visited places like the Jura in France and I'm sure that extra knowledge helped improve his wine.  

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His wine making is very natural, but he has a lifetime of experience.  He uses open cement fermenters, huge old Chilean wood Rauli barrels, and some stainless steel.  We drank his current release wines but also a Naranja skin contact white from 2017 and a Matorral red from 2010.  The 2010 was great and very harmonious!  He echoed some of the things I've heard from other wine makers: he worries that people will associate "natural" wine with wines that are funky.  To him natural wine should just be delicious and honest and taste like the place it comes from.  Wines that are "funky" are generally just poorly made.  Yes, funky is a subjective word and give him a break because he doesn't speak English, but he has a point that there is a segment of the natural wine pantheon that includes wines that are flawed.  That's totally ok, but I think he was worried that "natural" wine would come to be defined as wine with flaws.  

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Then he showed us around the mud brick adobe house he had built him self.  I noticed a lot of interesting books like the I Ching and poetry from Gabriel Garcia Marquez kicking around, reinforcing the take away that he was more worldly and thoughtful that you would expect a guy who lives in such an incredibly remote place to be.  Jose Luiz was a super sweet joyful guy and his wines are fantastic.  I'm honored to work with them

20200310_080634Here's the view from the "driveway" looking down at Jose Luiz's little world.  Those are all the vineyards of Gonzalez Bastias and the Maule river out beyond them.  If you zoom in you can see Jose Luiz walking down the drive way with his dogs.

 

Here's a video of a vineyard walk with Jose Luis


Visiting with Mauricio Gonzalez Carreno at Estacion Yumbel

IMG-20200321-WA0009

Mauricio was born a couple hours north of Bio Bio up in the town of Talca in Chile's central valley.  He worked at a couple wineries up in northern Chile, then over in Mendoza AR, before starting his own project down here in Bio Bio.  He said (in the video you can watch below) that he moved down here because it was a nicer place to live, to make wine on his own terms, and for he and his family's quality of life.  He said that up north in the industrial vineyards he had worked in his kids couldn't play in the vineyards because of the pesticides and all the tractors driving around.  Down in Yumbel he rarely has to even use basic copper treatments ever in a year because Pais is so vigorous and loves the environment so much!  And his kids can just play anywhere!   I am quite glad he did because his wines are fantastic.

We found Mauricio at his tiny wine barn on the edge of a hill in Yumbel.  It's an awesome location because a short walk up it you come to the top of the ridge and can look down on his 2.5 hectares of vineyards, look out at the Andes, and see north into the coastal mountain range.  The coastal range ends right there at that ridge top and the resulting gap lets cool air from the pacific in to Bio Bio and Itata.  

Mauricio makes 1700 cases of wine a year spread over a handful of wines: two Pais's from different vineyard locations, a white aged on skins in the tinaja, a Malbec from a few old vines, and a Carignan.  The two Pais's are the majority of what he makes.  Both are great and it's super interesting that they come from vineyards that border each other, but have very different characters and ripen about 2 weeks apart.  Quinta de Unihue is higher up the hill and ripens earlier.  The vineyard he uses for his Pipeno is a bit further down, is planted in fine black volcanic sand, and ripens a couple weeks later.  

20200310_124439

Mauricio's little barn (and I'm calling it a barn but it might more honestly be a large shed) has light coming through all the walls and a dirt floor.  He has a couple of large old Rauli (giant barrels made form a unique Chilean tree), some old re-used French oak barrels, a couple stainless steel tanks, and a group of tinaja.  Tinaja are ancient clay amphora that were traditionally used for aging wine.   No one seems to make them anymore and Mauricio's are over 100 years old.  Sometimes he'll go driving around and look for people that have one sitting out in their yard (they're popular landscaping decorations for wealthy people now).  He knocks on doors and tries to convince them to sell their tinaja on the spot.  So far he's only ever gotten 1, but he's still looking.  If you know anyone with an antique Chilean tinaja that they don't want please reach out to him.  

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It seemed like all of his reds go through primary fermentation in the large Rauli tanks.  He usually harvests several hundred kilos of grapes from any given vineyard about 10 days before the real harvest.  He puts those grapes into an old French oak cask and lets them start fermenting.  Then when he does the full harvest he dumps that smaller barrel in to act as a starter of sorts.  It's a technique that's used all over the world.  He's a knowledgeable wine maker and called it by it's French name: Pied de Cuve.  All the wines we tasted were zero sulfur added at all.  But Mauricio wasn't dogmatic about it and said that he would add sulfur at bottling on a wine by wine case if he had to.  Having a low PH (more acidity) helps stabilize a wine; in the current harvest the grapes had rather high PH so he suspected he might have to add a touch of sulfur when it came time to bottle.  That's the kind of thoughtful evidence based approach I appreciate. 

Mauricio also makes a distilled spirit from the left over skins after the press.  It's technically a Pisco (the local name for this grappa style spirit) but it's not like any store bought Pisco I've had.  He distills it 3 times and it was about 80% alcohol.  I tried rubbing some on the back of my hand to smell it, like I was taught to do with grappa, and it just smelled like straight alcohol.  It was quite impressive to drink!

Mauricio also (I've said that before, can you tell he's a busy guy?) trains Arabian horses for endurance races.  And he races them himself.  It's something that apparently runs in his family and he picked it up from his father.  He had 3 of the most beautiful horses I've ever seen in a pen out behind his house.  If I remember correctly the races are 120 K and happen over 6 hours in stages.  He trains the horses pretty much every day with some breaks from that during harvest when he's too busy.

Mauricio is a relaxed thoughtful guy who's always moving and working on something.  He's not frantic or too intense, but underneath he has a huge determination.  His wines were a great honest expression of the sun and richness of his land.  They're ripe and juicy but vivid and full of life like the best natural zero sulfur wines are when everything works out !

20200310_123221Mauricio standing in front of his tiny winery.

 

 

 


Roberto Henriquez in Bio Bio

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In early March 2020 I got to spend several days with Roberto Henriquez during harvest.  

Roberto grew up in the areaaround Bio Bio and had the experience of making wine with his grandfather when he was younger but then went on to other things.  He's a pretty awesome drummer and has an album his band put out years ago.  After spending some time as a musician Roberto got into a university program studying Agronomy.  If I understood correctly, there aren't official wine making programs in Chile; you have to study Agronomy and it's considered engineering by the government and quite rigorous. So Roberto studied Agronomy and really dug into ecosystems and how grapes ripen differently on different vines and why.  It was a rigorous 4 year program and only 12 people out of his class graduated, but Roberto was one of those 12.

Chile has a complicated economy.  There are some really developed parts with services and manufacturing and great universities.  There are other parts where most people are subsistence farmers.  There's still a lot of extractive industry just producing and selling raw materials.  Down where Roberto is from the paper industry is the largest employer and seemed to be a majority of the economic activity.  Driving around there was just hill after hill of pine trees.  Everything had been clear cut and then planted with pine trees for the paper industry.  They get clear cut and the replanted periodically.  It's surreal and sort of soul crushing.  The pine trees are almost always there somewhere in your vision in uniform dark rows.  Back under the Pinochet regime the government gave subsidies to select rich families who bought land and then the Government planted trees which the landowners eventually sold and benefited from.  Sure, it created jobs, but those jobs are pretty dead end.  

TreesHere's a shot from Roberto's truck of a clear cut hillside with more pines in the back ground.

So Roberto grew up around it and rebelled against the whole structure.  There are 200 year old vines all over and people had made wine here for, well, at least 200 years.  The southern regions of Chile are regarded by the rest of the country as more rural and backwards and the people are more of indigenous decent so the more European northerners look down on them.  Wines from down here in Bio Bio, Itata, and Maule are very poorly regarded and the grapes are worth nothing, so many old vines have been ripped out to plant pine trees.  Or they don't even ripe the vines out, the just plant pine trees over them and crowd them out in the shade.  After working with Louis Antoine Luyt for a few years (but then feeling he had to work on his own and follow his own vision) and then working with Agnes and Rene Mosse in the Loire Roberto was confident that the vines and land of Bio Bio and Itata were special and could produce great wines.

New WineryHere's Roberto's new winery.  He had just built it and it didn't actually have water or power yet.

I think his first real commercial vintage was 2016.  The first vintage I was able to get my hands was 2017.  He started out making wine on a little plot of 200 year old Pais vines in Santa Juana in Bio Bio and making wine in a traditional open topped concrete vat that honestly looks more like a concrete hot tub than anything else.  Three years ago he built a new house in Patagual.  This past year he built a new winery at his house in Patagual!  It's a huge game changer going from the tiny low barn built into a hill side to a building with a concrete floor to work on and just spray down!  A little aside, the driving here is insane.  There are so many rivers and so few bridges that it seemed like Roberto spent hours every day driving around from one place to another.  

20200305_201617Here's the little vineyard in Santa Juana where Roberto started (and still does) make wine.  If I regularly spent time in a place like this I would be super calm and centered too!

Roberto is a thoughtful calm guy with infinite patience.  He had a great team made up of several agronomy students doing work study projects with him, a wine maker from Catalonia, a Journeyman winemaker named Paula, and a sommelier from Bogota Columbia.  Roberto gave them a ton of autonomy to figure a lot out on their own.  He was a much more relaxed lazare fair wine maker in how he supervised the people working for him than I'm used to.  That's not the whole story though.  Right from the beginning when I met him here in the US I could tell that he was motivated by a clear vision and that he was so passionate about it that he was that vision and the vision was him.  His vision is to have a critical mass of small farmers working together making wine from the traditional Pais vines down in Bio Bio and Itata and for that value added industry to help all the people there improve their lives.  It's his whole reason for being.

 

Here's a quick video of Roberto talking about how brutally low the prices are that big companies pay for grapes they buy

Roberto owns some vineyards and buys grapes from others.  Those he buys grapes from, he works in concert with the farmers to manage the vines year round.  He pays 3-4 times the market price for a kilo of grapes to ensure that they farm the way he wants and also because it's the right thing to do.  Large bulk wine producers may pay $1000 per 5000 kilos of grapes.  That just basically covers the pruning and cost of land for a farmer and leaves no actual profit.  Roberto hopes that if he proves wine making and exporting can work that other people will start making wine themselves too and then they'll slowly be able to push back against the paper industry and people will generally be more empowered economically to advocate for themselves and their communities.  It's a hard struggle.  Chile is a conservative agricultural culture.  The country is still emerging from the aftermath of the Pinochet military dictatorship and in the past 20 years they've experienced several crashes in the price of the raw materials that they export.  A lot of people are so used to the system being stacked against them that they're resistant to the idea of hope that it could change.

20200307_180606Old Tinaja at Roberto's barn in Santa Juana

Like many of the best wine makers Roberto blends tradition, intuition, and deep technical knowledge.  He ferments with out temperature control in a building that's pretty open to the environment.  He's got a thorough technical understanding of why happens during all the stages of fermentation and that allows him to play around and experiment with confidence.  He knows technically when things are going right and when the fermenting wine is stable and what environmental factors he can play around with to influence the wine without worrying he's going to mess it up.  In a more whimsical concept he puts rocks from the vineyard the grapes came from into the bottoms of the tanks that the wine ferments in.    He uses old tinaja (100 year old locally produced amphora, huge rauli (a local hard wood tree that is now rare because they were all logged) vats, and cement tanks.  Roberto hand harvests and sometimes uses a destemmer, sometimes presses by hand over a bamboo mat (zaranda). 

20200311_110119That's a zaranda that I'm working on.  You press grapes back and forth between two people and they slowly get pressed between the bamboo branches. 

20200305_200643 trim

 

Pipeno is a traditional style of red wine from the Maule/Bio Bio/Itata regions.  There's no legal definition so everyone fights over what it is.  Here's a video of Roberto explaining what Pipeno means to him.

 


Corona Virus Covid-19, This Time is Different

The disaster in public health and the economy caused by the spread of covid-19 is unlike anything we’ve experienced before.  In modern times we've never had a new virus emerge and create a pandemic. The resulting economic shock is also unique. All of our recent economic crises started as asset bubbles or liquidity crunches that first affected the financial industry before trickling down to Main St America.  The covid-19 economic crisis is going in the opposite direction: it has hit Main Street first as small businesses close to protect the health of themselves and the public. Consumer spending is 70% of the US economy and this shock will trickle up, although “erupt” might be more apt than “trickle”. This systemic shut down is necessary for our public safety, but just as when the human body goes into shock, outside intervention is needed to keep America's diverse economy on life support. In medicine the best practice is to cure the underlying problem while keeping the patient alive as you do it. The “patient” in this crisis is public health and the consumer economy.

Given that this is a unique situation it would be unreasonable to think that the tools of the past would be effective in handling the covid-19 crisis.  The Federal Reserve has cut rates to nearly 0. This is a helpful action but it addresses a symptom (anticipated liquidity crunch for large businesses) while ignoring the root problem: a crash in consumer confidence and demand due to a public health emergency for which we are not prepared.  To that end Congress should immediately undertake a massive investment in increased covid-19 testing, community health care, and a serious economic stimulus targeted directly at individuals and Main Street.  

The United States doesn't have widespread testing available for covid-19. That lack of knowledge leaves us blind and makes it much harder to effectively combat the outbreak. We need to increase the availability of test kits and shrink the turn around time of analyzing them. I don't know how to do that, but hundreds of thousands of lives and the US economy are on the line. In the status quo covid-19 cases seem to double every 6 days. The mortality rate is estimated at .5-2%. That could realistically mean over 600,000 deaths in America without taking into account people who will die from other causes if our health care system is overwhelmed. The threat is so large that speed is far more important than being fiscally frugal in the face of this impending catastrophe. Individuals need fast and direct governmental financial support to pay their bills and make it easier to stay home and flatten the curve of infection. Small businesses need zero interest loans or even just grants to pay bills and keep their heads above water. We know what will happen if we don't take overwhelming drastic action right now.  All we have to do is look at northern Italy to have some idea of what will happen in our hospitals and to the small businesses that our communities center around.  If there was ever a time to throw money at a problem: this is it. This is bigger than Maine.  It's bigger than any one state or even country.  We can do what we can in our communities to minimize the spread and help those in need, but we all need to put our voices together and demand stronger action from the Federal Government.  

I included these pictures for the sake of pictures so that this would be more visible on social media.

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Here's a parking lot at dinner time that should be full of cars....


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My friends Ilma and Damian of Chaval and Piccolo.  They've had to close their restaurant to dining in.  They're smiling because they just made hundreds of meals for school kids that need food assistance.  You can see the boxes in the background.  But I know that in their heads they're struggling with questions of how to keep paying the mortgage on the building that houses their restaurant and how to support their employees.